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Int J Nurs Stud. 1994 Dec;31(6):533-44.

Validation of cutaneous stimulation interventions for pain management.

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  • 1University of Iowa, College of Nursing, Iowa City 52242.


The purpose of this study was to identify and validate specific activities considered important in the implementation of selected cutaneous stimulation pain management interventions including heat and cold application, massage and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). A two-round Delphi survey was completed by nurses selected for their expertise in pain management. Data were analyzed using a modification of Fehring's diagnostic content validity method. Consistently high scores were obtained by the raters for each intervention and activity, with most activities perceived as critical to the intervention. From this process, a list of activities for each cutaneous stimulation intervention evolved that are applicable to education, clinical practice and clinical nursing research.

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