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J Learn Disabil. 1995 Feb;28(2):96-106.

Comorbidity of reading and mathematics disabilities: genetic and environmental etiologies.

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  • 1Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.


Although children with learning disabilities frequently manifest comorbid reading and mathematics deficits, the cause of this comorbidity is unknown. To assess the extent to which comorbidity between reading and mathematics deficits is due to genetic and environmental influences, we conducted a twin study of reading and mathematics performance. Data from 148 identical and 111 fraternal twin pairs in which at least one member of the pair had a reading disability were subjected to a cross-concordance analysis and also fitted to a bivariate extension of the basic multiple regression model for the analysis of selected twin data. Results of these analyses suggest that genetic and shared-environmental influences both contribute to the observed covariance between reading and mathematics deficits.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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