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J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1994 Jul-Sep;14(3):144-52.

Craniofacial features in patients with deficient and excessive growth hormone.

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  • 1Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, University of Helsinki, Finland.


We studied the role of growth hormone (GH) in craniofacial growth by analyzing the craniofacial structures in patients with either deficient or excessive GH. The cephalogrammes of 21 patients with isolated or combined GH deficiency and of two patients with GH excess were compared with cephalogrammes of age and sex matched controls, and the patients with deficient GH also with height and sex matched controls. In cephalometric measurements, skeletal anatomy was followed as closely as possible. All patients had a Class I or an end-to-end dental occlusion. Head circumference was normal in all patients. Facial widths were significantly smaller in patients with deficient GH but at the level of + 2 SDs in the two with GH excess when compared to Finnish norms. In patients with deficient GH, facial heights were significantly smaller than in age matched controls, but of the same order with height controls for anterior facial height. Posterior facial height was smaller even in this comparison. In patients with GH excess, facial heights were much larger and at the levels of +3 and +6 SD. Clivus was shorter in patients with deficient GH and longer (+ 1.9 and +3 SD) in the two with GH excess. All angulations of the sphenoidal plane deviated from those of the controls in the group with GH deficiency. The cranial base angle (CL-SPhen) was smaller than in controls while it was normal in patients with GH excess. We are inclined to interpret the craniofacial structure of those with deficient GH as being unique to the condition rather than merely negative allometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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