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JAMA. 1994 May 11;271(18):1421-8.

Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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  • 1Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 75235-9052.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study effects of variation in carbohydrate content of diet on glycemia and plasma lipoproteins in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

DESIGN:

A four-center randomized crossover trial.

SETTING:

Outpatient and inpatient evaluation in metabolic units.

PATIENTS:

Forty-two NIDDM patients receiving glipizide therapy.

INTERVENTIONS:

A high-carbohydrate diet containing 55% of the total energy as carbohydrates and 30% as fats was compared with a high-monounsaturated-fat diet containing 40% carbohydrates and 45% fats. The amounts of saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, cholesterol, sucrose, and protein were similar. The study diets, prepared in metabolic kitchens, were provided as the sole nutrients to subjects for 6 weeks each. To assess longer-term effects, a subgroup of 21 patients continued the diet they received second for an additional 8 weeks.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Twenty-four-hour profiles of glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels.

RESULTS:

The site of study as well as the diet order did not affect the results. Compared with the high-monounsaturated-fat diet, the high-carbohydrate diet increased fasting plasma triglyceride levels and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 24% (P < .0001) and 23% (P = .0001), respectively, and increased daylong plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin values by 10% (P = .03), 12% (P < .0001), and 9% (P = .02), respectively. Plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged. The effects of both diets on plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels persisted for 14 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS:

In NIDDM patients, high-carbohydrate diets compared with high-monounsaturated-fat diets caused persistent deterioration of glycemic control and accentuation of hyperinsulinemia, as well as increased plasma triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which may not be desirable.

PMID:
7848401
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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