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Prog Clin Biol Res. 1994;388:175-94.

Studies on the inflammatory-coagulant axis in the baboon response to E. coli: regulatory roles of proteins C, S, C4bBP and of inhibitors of tissue factor.

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  • 1Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City 73104.


The baboon model of E. coli sepsis illustrates three concepts with respect to the host response and vascular endothelium. First, the endothelium is the primary target. E. coli sepsis is an acute inflammatory disease of the vascular endothelium. Second, the endothelium is not a passive target. Initially it regulates both the inflammatory and coagulopathic aspects of E. coli sepsis through membrane associated regulatory receptor/plasma protein assemblies including protein C/thrombomodulin, activated protein C/protein S, C4bBP/protein S, tissue factor pathway inhibitor/Xa, antithrombin III/glycosaminoglycans. Third, when overridden by inflammatory events, the endothelium can change its anticoagulant phenotype and mount a massive procoagulant fibrinolytic counter-attack on its luminal side through the expression of tissue factor and release of tissue plasminogen activator. Fourth, again when overridden by inflammatory events, the endothelium can change its antioxidant phenotype and produce a "distal" tissue hypoxia on its abluminal side through induction of free radical generation and peroxidation of mitochondrial lipid membranes of those tissues with high metabolic rates. It has become increasingly clear that the so-called anticoagulant systems which act on the proximal factors of the clotting cascade (protein C, TFPI, AT-III, PGI2) also attenuate the amplification of the inflammatory response. Aspects of the mechanism by which this occurs are coming to light. This includes the attenuation of Il-6 response by TFPI and the attenuation of the complement effects by C4bBP/PS. The specifics of these observations in the E. coli sepsis model will be reviewed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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