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Urol Clin North Am. 1995 May;22(2):263-83.

Genetic and cellular characteristics of bladder outlet obstruction.

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  • 1Division of Urology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.


Urinary bladder outlet obstruction is a common medical problem. In order to understand the effects of outlet obstruction on bladder morphology, physiology, and pharmacology, several animal models of obstruction have been developed using a variety of species. Although there are marked differences in bladder size, capacity, compliance, physiology, and pharmacology among these species, responses to outlet obstruction have many common characteristics. This article will be separated into six areas: introduction, genetic factors mediating the response during the initial period of partial outlet obstruction and overdistension, cytostructural alterations that accompany compensated bladder function, alterations in innervation accompanying bladder hypertrophy secondary to partial outlet obstruction, alterations in calcium translocation during bladder hypertrophy, and metabolic factors involved in the response to partial outlet obstruction.

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