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Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995 Jun 1;52(11):1179-98.

ASHP national survey of hospital-based pharmaceutical services--1994.


The results of a national survey of pharmaceutical services in federal and nonfederal community hospitals conducted by ASHP during summer 1994 are reported and compared with the findings of earlier ASHP surveys. A simple random sample of community hospitals (federal and nonfederal) was selected from hospitals registered by the American Hospital Association. A questionnaire was mailed to each director of pharmacy. The adjusted gross sample size was 896. The net response rate was 44% (393 usable replies). The mean number of hours that respondents' pharmacies were open per week for inpatient services was 107.5. An increasing number of pharmacy directors were managing other departments within the institution. Of respondents, 18% indicated that a patient-focused-care model was in place. Complete unit dose drug distribution was offered by 92% of respondents, and 67% provided complete, comprehensive i.v. admixture services. A total of 29% provided decentralized inpatient pharmaceutical services. Automation of some type to support drug distribution was used by 55%. Provision of ambulatory care pharmaceutical services was indicated by 82% of nonfederal hospitals and by 98% of federal hospitals. Home infusion therapy services were offered by 27% of respondents. Some 89% had a computerized pharmacy system. The most commonly offered clinical pharmacy services for inpatients were drug-use evaluations and programs to monitor drug therapy, adverse drug reactions, and drug-food interactions. About half of respondents indicated that they did not provide pharmaceutical care. One third indicated that pharmacists had the authority to write drug orders or prescriptions. Pharmacokinetic consultations were provided by 65% and nutritional-support consultations by 35%. Of nonfederal respondents, 86% participated in quality assurance for inpatient dispensing and 28% did so for ambulatory care dispensing. A well-controlled formulary system was in place at 60% of the hospitals. About 74% of inpatient pharmacy expenditures went for drugs and fluids, 20% for staff activities, and 6% for other noncapital expenditures. Almost half of respondents indicated that staff reductions had occurred. About 9% of nonfederal hospitals had an ASHP-accredited residency program. The 1994 ASHP survey revealed a continuation of growth in some areas of hospital pharmacy (clinical services, computerization, formulary management techniques, and residency programs) and identified static areas (ambulatory care services, scope of drug distribution services, and quality assurance programs) that should be addressed by pharmacy leaders.

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