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Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Sep;15(9):4711-7.

Insulin receptor substrate 1 rescues insulin action in CHO cells expressing mutant insulin receptors that lack a juxtamembrane NPXY motif.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.


Insulin signals are mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of specific proteins such as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and Shc by the activated insulin receptor (IR). Phosphorylation of both proteins is nearly abolished by an alanine substitution at Tyr-960 (A960) in the beta-subunit of the receptor. However, overexpression of IRS-1 in CHO cells expressing the mutant receptor (A960 cells) restored sufficient tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 to rescue IRS-1/Grb-2 binding and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase activation during insulin stimulation. Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and its binding to Grb-2 were impaired in the A960 cells and were unaffected by overexpression of IRS-1. Although overexpression of IRS-1 increased IRS-1 binding to Grb-2, ERK-1/ERK-2 activation was not rescued. These data suggest that signaling molecules other than IRS-1, perhaps including Shc, are critical for insulin stimulation of p21ras. Interestingly, overexpression of IRS-1 in the A960 cells restored insulin-stimulated mitogenesis and partially restored insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is sufficient to increase the mitogenic response to insulin, whereas insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis appears to involve other factors. Moreover, IRS-1 phosphorylation is either not sufficient or not involved in insulin stimulation of ERK.

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