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Int J Dermatol. 1995 Aug;34(8):542-5.

Antismooth muscle and antiparietal cell antibodies in Indians with alopecia areata.

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  • 1Department of Dermatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



Alopecia areata is suspected to be an autoimmune disease. We studied 104 consecutive patients with alopecia areata for the presence of autoantibodies and associated autoimmune diseases.


A detailed history and examination was carried out in all patients to look for associated atopy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, vitiligo, lupus erythematosus, and thyroid disorders, etc. in the patients or their family members. Venous blood for estimation of fasting and postprandial blood glucose was collected in 30 patients, especially in those with family history of diabetes mellitus. Antimitochondrial (AMA), antismooth muscle (SMA), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antiparietal cell antibody (PCA), and antibody against thyroid microsome (TMA) were detected employing indirect immunofluorescence on a composite section of rat liver, stomach, kidney, and human thyroid. Skin biopsy was processed for direct immunofluorescence by a conventional technique.


Disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planus, urticaria, psoriasis, and seronegative spondylarthritis were associated with alopecia areata in one case each. Antismooth-muscle-antibodies and PCA were found in 36 (34.6%) and 44 (42.3%) patients respectively, followed by TMA in 8 (7.7%), AMA in 6 (5.7%), antithyroglobulin antibodies in 3 (2.8%), and ANA in 2 (1.9%) patients. The incidence of SMA was higher in men with alopecia areata (P < 0.001). Direct immunofluorescence carried out in 24 patients did not reveal significant findings, except for occasional immunoglobulin deposits around hair follicles and blood vessels.


Alopecia areata in India is associated more often with antismooth muscle and antiparietal cell antibodies.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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