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Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1995;40 Suppl 1:9-15.

The importance of life style after menopause.

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  • 11 Cattedra di Clinicia, Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universit√† degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.


There is generally recognized close association between lifestyle and health, even if the exact nature, and importance, of various aspects of the relationship is under investigation, including that between life style and menopause. However, there are abundant and conclusive data showing the positive effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on menopausal symptoms and reduction of long-term menopausal risks. Much is still to be learned, though, about the reciprocal influences of life style, HRT choices, and quality of life. At present the opportunity for HRT is somewhat limited, and physicians are to a degree to blame in this situation by not vigorously counteracting inaccurate popular perceptions of the dangers and benefits of HRT. For purposes of discussion, life style may be taken to be a cluster of interrelated behaviour patterns that depend upon social and economic conditions, education, age, and other factors. The importance of some of these factors in terms of illness and longevity is striking. For instance, a study in England revealed a twofold difference in death rate between unskilled laborers and self-employed professional--and this difference was also applicable to their wives. Income, too, is a determinant of life style. Good health is well correlated with higher income. (Some three-quarters of the elderly poor are women). Smoking is certainly a life style health factor. In recent years, smoking has declined among the upper socioeconomic classes and, indeed, these is now a class gradient in lung cancer deaths. Diet is a factor that is strongly influenced by geography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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