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J Subst Abuse. 1995;7(2):245-52.

Effect of cigarette smoking on alcohol treatment outcome.

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  • 1University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Although smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are highly correlated, little research has examined the effects of smoking on alcohol abusers' posttreatment functioning. Alcohol abusers (N = 155) were classified on the basis of their pretreatment smoking status as: nonsmoker, ex-smoker, low dependent smoker (first cigarette of the day > 10 minutes after waking), and high dependent smoker (first cigarette of the day < or = 10 minutes after waking). All subjects had received brief cognitive-behavioral outpatient treatment for their alcohol problem. Subjects who were less dependent on nicotine had fewer drinking days and fewer heavy drinking days prior to entering treatment than those who were more dependent on nicotine; the two nonsmoking groups had fewer abstinent days than the low nicotine-dependent subjects and fewer heavy drinking days than the high nicotine-dependent subjects. At the 1-year follow-up, the two smoking groups did not differ from each other on the alcohol variables but reported significantly more abstinent days than the two nonsmoking groups. Treatment implications are discussed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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