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Urology. 1995 Aug;46(2):205-12.

The role of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy-based staging, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, and biopsy Gleason score in prediction of final pathologic diagnosis in prostate cancer.

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.



To evaluate the role of ultra sound-guided systematic and lesion-directed biopsies, biopsy gleason score, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as three objective and reproducible variables to provide a reliable combination in preoperative identification of risk of extraprostatic extension in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.


The case records of 813 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer were analyzed. All had multiple systematic biopsies, two to three from each lobe, in addition to lesion-directed biopsies. Additionally, biopsies were done on seminal vesicles (SVs), if abnormal. Based on biopsy results, patients were classified as having stage B1 (T2a-T2b) or B2 (T2c) disease, depending on whether biopsies from one or both lobes were positive and stage C (T3) if there was evidence of SV involvement by biopsy of biopsies from areas of extracapsular extension as seen on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) were positive. Logistic regression analyses with log likelihood chi-square test was used to define the correlation between individual as well as combination of preoperative variables and pathologic stage.


On final pathologic examination, 473 (58%) patients had organ-confined disease, 188 (23%) had extracapsular extension (ECE), with or without positive surgical margins, and 72 (9%) had SV involvement. Eighty (10%) patients had pelvic lymph node metastases. Biopsy-based staging was superior to clinical staging in predicting final pathologic diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the combination of biopsy-based stage, preoperative serum PSA, and biopsy Gleason score provided the best prediction of final pathologic stage. Probability plots constructed with these data can provide significant information on risk of extraprostatic extension in individual patients.


This study demonstrates that TRUS-guided systematic biopsy in combination with preoperative serum PSA and biopsy Gleason score may provide a cost-effective approach for management decisions and prognostication in patients with prostate cancer.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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