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Biol Pharm Bull. 1994 Dec;17(12):1554-60.

Enhancement of cytokine production by macrophages stimulated with (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, grifolan (GRN), isolated from Grifola frondosa.

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  • 1Laboratory of Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Japan.


The ability of grifolan (GRN), a purified fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, to induce various cytokines from macrophages was examined in vitro. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activity in supernatants from the culture of macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 was dependent on increasing doses of GRN. The level of IL-6 induced with 500 micrograms/ml of GRN was comparable to that induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 10 micrograms/ml. Enhancement of the mRNA level of IL-6 by treatment with GRN was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effect of GRN on production of IL-6 was also observed using peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice which did not respond to endotoxins. This data suggested that the ability of GRN to activate IL-6 production of macrophages is not due to contamination of endotoxins in the preparation. Enhanced production of cytokine by GRN was observed not only with IL-6, but also with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In the production of TNF alpha, GRN was more effective than LPS used in this study. Other soluble or gel-forming(1-->3)-beta-D-glucans from various sources did not enhance the production of such cytokines although they are structurally similar to GRN. The above results indicate that GRN is a novel macrophage activator which augments cytokine production without dependence on endotoxins.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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