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J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31;270(13):7420-6.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA.

Abstract

Protein kinases activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr (MAP kinases) can be grouped into two major classes: ERK and JNK. The ERK group regulates multiple targets in response to growth factors via a Ras-dependent mechanism. In contrast, JNK activates the transcription factor c-Jun in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and exposure of cells to several forms of environmental stress. Recently, a novel mammalian protein kinase (p38) that shares sequence similarity with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was identified. Here, we demonstrate that p38, like JNK, is activated by treatment of cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The mechanism of p38 activation is mediated by dual phosphorylation on Thr-180 and Tyr-182. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of activated cells. Together, these data establish that p38 is a member of the mammalian MAP kinase group.

PMID:
7535770
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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