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Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Jan;34(1):41-9.

The effect of vitamin A fortification of sugar on the serum vitamin A levels of preschool Guatemalan children: a longitudinal evaluation.


Based on the Guatemalan program of vitamin A fortification of sugar, a longitudinal evaluation on serum retinol levels of preschool-aged children was performed. Five consecutive surveys executed every 6 months were examined, considering only children who were surveyed more than once. Thus, the changes in their serum retinol after the intervention were evaluated. Natural dietary vitamin A remained unchanged throughout. Addition of retinyl palmitate to sugar increased significantly the intake (p < 0.001). After 1 yr of fortification 76% of the children experienced an elevation of retinol. All those with initial values < 20 microgram/dl showed an increase. Mean values increased significantly, particularly for children below 20 microgram/dl whose levels changed from 16.2 +/- 2.9 to 30.2 +/- 9.7 (P < 0.00001). Those between 20 to 29 microgram/dl increased from 24.9 +/- 3.2 to 30.1 +/- 8.1 (p < 0.0003). Similar results were obtained after 2 yr. The results indicated the effectiveness of the program in raising serum retinol levels.

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