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Am J Ophthalmol. 1980 Aug;90(2):239-47.

Cycloplegic refractions in infants and young children.


We studied groups of normal infants and infants with amblyopia and esoropia to determine the incidence of infantile astigmatism. Under cycloplegia, 19% of normal infants had astigmatism; this was at least twice the incidence in adults, but less than one-hale that found by noncycloplegic refractions of infants. During the first three postnatal years the incidence of astigmatism and distributions of spherical equivalents and anisometropia did not distinguish normal patients from most of those with esotropia and amblyopia.

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