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Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980 Mar-Apr;(147):29-38.

The natural history and diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency.


In 233 knees with anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency the characteristic diagnostic signs and symptoms were: a specific mechanism of injury; an audible "pop" at the time of injury; a positive anterior drawer sign' "giving away"; functional disability; periarticular degenerative changes. Unresolved anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency follows a predictable natural history typified by a course of progressive knee dysfunction and deterioration. The progress of deterioration can be significantly modified or arrested by repair or reconstruction of the injured ligament.

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