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Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Apr;138(4):512-4.

Ad lib caffeine consumption, symptoms of caffeinism, and academic performance.


The authors explored the relationship between ad lib caffeine consumption in college students and the incidence of caffeinism, characterized by heightened anxiety, depression, and various psychophysiological reactions. Students were randomly selected from four groups (abstainers from caffeine and low, moderate, and high consumers). A survey battery assessed the effects of caffeine, incidence of psychophysiological disorders, state-trait anxiety, and depression. The moderate and high consumer groups combined reported significantly higher trait anxiety and depression scores when compared with abstainers. The high consumer group also reported significantly higher levels of symptoms of caffeinism, higher frequency of psychophysiological disorders, and lower academic performance.

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