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J Biochem Biophys Methods. 1982 Sep;6(4):317-39.

Isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients: principle, methodology and some applications.


A new technique for generating pH gradients in isoelectric focusing is described, based on the principle that the buffering groups are covalently linked to the matrix used as anticonvective medium. For the generation of this type of pH gradient in polyacrylamide gels, a set of buffering monomers, called Immobiline (in analogy with Ampholine), is used. The pH gradient gels are cast in the same way as pore gradient gels, but instead of varying the acrylamide content, the light and heavy solutions are adjusted to different pH values with the aid of the Immobiline buffers. Available Immobiline species make it possible to generate any narrow linear pH gradient between pH 3 and 10. The behaviour of these types of gradients in isoelectric focusing is described. Immobilized pH gradients show a number of advantages compared with carrier ampholyte generated pH gradients. The most important are: (1) the cathodic drift is completely abolished; (2) they give higher resolution and higher loading capacity; (3) they have uniform conductivity and buffering capacity; (4) they represent a milieu of known and controlled ionic strength.

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