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Toxicology. 1982;24(3-4):259-71.

Enhanced teratogenicity of orally administered lead in hamsters fed diets deficient in calcium or iron.


A preliminary investigation was carried out to determine if dietary deficiencies in calcium or iron enhance the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of orally administered lead in hamsters. Females of experimental groups were given drinking water containing 0.05% or 0.1% lead acetate and a calcium or iron deficient diet for several weeks prior to and/or during pregnancy. The incidence of embryonic/fetal mortality and of abnormal fetuses was markedly increased in litters delivered from these animals near term (15th gestational day) compared with litters from control animals similarly exposed to leaded drinking water but fed complete diets.

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