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Pediatrics. 1983 Mar;71(3):342-51.

Timing of elective hypospadias repair in children.

Abstract

Psychological concerns for the timing of medical procedures on children result from the longstanding realization that events and behavioral patterns of childhood have wide-ranging effects on the later behavior of the adult. A review of the literature regarding the effects of surgery on psychological development is presented. Particular reference is made to the impact of genitourinary surgery with specific emphasis on the repair of hypospadias, a congenital anomaly affecting 1:250 to 1:400 live male births. Studies of adults who underwent hypospadias repair as children suggest that they are psychologically different from their peers who did not have this surgery. Specifically, as adults they frequently have sexual difficulty despite erectile competence and they generally occupy less responsible, less competitive, and less independent professions than similarly intelligent cohorts. These findings imply that the experience of hypospadias or its surgical repair may in some way affect psychological development. By examining these experiences in light of emotional and cognitive development and the emergence of body image and sexual identity, predictions for psychologically optimal timing of surgery are made. Importance of the role of the family in the psychological outcome and a discussion of surgical considerations are also provided.

PMID:
6828341
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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