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Crit Rev Microbiol. 1982;10(1):77-124.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic Vibrios.

Abstract

Approximately 30 years have elapsed since Dr. Fujino's original discovery that Vibrio parahaemolyticus (then termed Pasteurella parahemolytica) was the cause of "summer diarrhea" in Japan. Since that finding, V. parahaemolyticus has been established as a cause of gastroenteritis in numbers and places approaching global proportions. It has been isolated in marine and estuarine areas almost worldwide and despite its halophilic nature, V. parahaemolyticus has been isolated from saline-free waters. The relationship of this organism to the environment reveals a close association with other marine organisms especially copepods on which the Vibrios depend for survival in winter months and growth in summer months. There is a uniquely provocative disparity between human strains of V. parahaemolyticus which are Kanagawa phenomenon (KP) positive and the environmental strains which to a large extent are KP negative, the significance being that pathogenicity is measured according to the Kanagawa phenomenon (hemolytic activity) reaction. The hemolysin of the pathogenic strains is a thermostable, cardiotoxic protein, which thus far has not been implicated in the mechanism(s) which causes human gastroenteritis. The interest in this organism has been widened in recent years by the finding that similar organisms, V. alginolyticus, lactose positive vibrios and group F vibrios also cause serious disease in humans.

PMID:
6756788
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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