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Int J Cancer. 1983 Oct 15;32(4):443-4.

Oesophageal cancer in non-smoking drinkers and in non-drinking smokers.


Alcohol and tobacco are the two major risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus; they usually combine their action. The action of each factor is studied here in non-users of the other. Among non-drinking male smokers the relative risk is higher than 5; among non-smoking drinkers, risks are much higher and increase with average daily intake; this effect is also observed in females, with risk values of the same order of magnitude as for males. Thus the high sex ratio of oesophageal cancer in France can be entirely ascribed to different drinking levels in females and in males.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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