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J Biol Chem. 1978 May 25;253(10):3453-8.

The renaturation of reduced chymotrypsinogen A in guanidine HCl. Refolding versus aggregation.


The refolding and reoxidation of fully reduced and denatured chymotrypsinogen A have been studied in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine HCl or urea. Renaturation yields of 60 to 70% were observed when the reoxidation was facilitated by mixtures of reduced and oxidized glutathione. Refolding occurred within a narrow range of denaturant concentration (1.0 to 1.3 M guanidine HCl and 2 M urea) in which the native protein was shown to be stable, and the reduced protein was shown to regain the correct disulfide pairing. Renatured chymotrypsinogen is indistinguishable from the native zymogen in chromatographic behavior, potential chymotryptic activity, sedimentation coefficient, and spectral properties. The kinetics of renaturation were determined. Some of the protein species obtained at various times of renaturation were characterized as incorrectly oxidized molecules which could be renatured by thiol-catalyzed interchange of disulfide bonds.

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