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J Biol Chem. 1976 Jun 25;251(12):3786-93.

Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase. II. Physical, catalytic, and regulatory properties.

Abstract

Some physical, catalytic, and regulatory properties of ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate: alpha-ketoisovalerate hydroxymethyltranferase) from Escherichia coli are described. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible synthesis of ketopantoate (Reaction 1), an essential precursor of pantothenic acid. (1) HC(CH3)2COCOO- + 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate f in equilibrium r HOCH2C(CH3)2COCOO- + tetrahydrofolate It has a molecular weight by sedimentation equilibrium of 255,000, a sedimentation coefficient (S20,w) of 11 S, a partial specific volume of 0.74 ml/g, an isoelectric point of 4.4, and an absorbance, (see article), of 0.85. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate and amino acid analyses give a subunit molecular weight of 27,000 and 25,700, respectively; both procedures indicate the presence of 10 identical subunits. The NH2-terminal sequence is Met-Tyr---. The enzyme is stable and active over a broad pH range, with an optimum from 7.0 to 7.6. It requires Mg2+ for activity; Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+ are progressively less active. The enzyme is not inactivated by borohydride reduction in the presence of excess substrates, i.e. it is a Class II aldolase. Reaction 1f is partially inhibited by concentrations of formaldehyde (0.8 mM) and tetrahydrofolate (0.38 mM) below or near the Km values, apparent Km values are 0.18, 1.1 and 5.9 mM for tetrahydrofolate, alpha-ketoisovalerate, and formaldehyde, respectively. For Reaction 1r, apparent Km values are 0.16 and 0.18 mM, respectively, for ketopantoate and tetrahydrofolate, and the saturation curves for both substrates show positive cooperativity. Forward and reverse reactions occur at similar maximum velocities (Vmax approximately equal to 8 mumol of ketopantoate formed or decomposed per min per mg of enzyme at 37 degrees). Only 1-tetrahydrofolate is active in Reaction 1; d-tetrahydrofolate, folate, and methotrexate were neither active nor inhibitory. However, 1-tetrahydrofolate was effectively replaced with conjugates containing 1 to 6 additional glutamate residues; of these, tetrahydropterolpenta-, tetra-, and triglutamate were effective at lower concentrations than tetrahydrofolate itself; they were also the predominant conjugates of tetrahydrofolate present in E. coli. Alpha-Ketobutyrate, alpha-ketovalerate, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate replaced alpha-ketoisovalerate as substrates; pyruvate was inactive as a substrate, but like isovalerate, 3-methyl-2-butanone and D- or L-valine, inhibited Reaction 1. the transferase has regulatory properties expected of an enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in a biosynthetic pathway. Pantoate (greater than or equal to 500 muM) and coenzyme A (above 1 mM) all inhibit; the Vmax is decreased, Km is increased, and the cooperativity for substrate (ketopantoate) is enhanced. Catalytic activity of the transferase is thus regulated by the products of the reaction path of which it is one component; transferase synthesis is not repressed by growth in the presence of pantothenate.

PMID:
6463
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