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Morphol Embryol (Bucur). 1981 Jul-Sep;27(3):195-214.

Data regarding the typology and functional significance of the venous valves.


Many authors described in detail the morphological features of human venous valves, but less their functional architecture. The present study provides additional information concerning the valvular anatomy, to enable its functional interpretation. The previously reported data and the author's results showed the regional distribution and characteristics of venous valves in different areas of the human body. Certain findings suggested a reorganization after birth of the venous valves which are frequently met in fetus. The close relation between hemodynamic mechanisms and the blood guiding structures may explain the changes (disappearance or persistence) of venous valves in some areas after birth. Significance of the rudimentary folds, resembling valves, is not yet elucidated. Based on his observations, the author attempted a new classification of the veins. The relations between density and morphological peculiarities of venous valves in different vein types showed that the constant valves were always involved in the local hemodynamics. Bardeleben's principles referring to the location and topographical arrangement of venous valves can be applied only to certain areas of the limbs, but not to other regions. In this paper there are described and functionally interpreted the venous valves of all territories of the human body.

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