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J Pers Assess. 1984 Aug;48(4):360-4.

Validation of the Holtzman anxiety scale by vasomotor biofeedback.


The Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 81 undergraduates who later received biofeedback training for increases in index finger skin temperature. The Holtzman anxiety measure correlated significantly with voluntary temperature increase and the High Anxiety Group, identified by the HIT, was able to achieve significant increases in digital temperature. No significant relationships were found between State-Trait Anxiety measures and either Holtzman anxiety scores or vasomotor control, nor were there significant increases in temperature among State-Trait anxiety groups. The results supported the validity of the HIT as a measure of anxiety, but failed to characterize this anxiety as either state or trait in nature.

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