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J Bacteriol. 1982 Aug;151(2):668-77.

Cloning of antibiotic resistance and nutritional genes in streptomycetes.


Methodology which allows consistent shotgun cloning of streptomycete genes is presented. Parameters that increase transformation efficiency of Streptomyces lividans 66 were adjusted to generate reproducibly a population of cloned genes likely to represent the entire genome. Factors which influence the recovery of viable transformants include: growth phase of the mycelium, ionic and osmotic characteristics of the medium during protoplast formation and transformation, and moisture content and protoplast density during regeneration. A modified transformation procedure was devised which increased transformation frequency more than 20-fold (allowing up to 10(7) primary transformants per microgram of SLP1.2 covalently closed circular DNA) and greatly facilitated the cloning of drug resistance genes and biosynthetic genes, using one of two plasmid vectors. Viomycin resistance genes on BamHI or PstI fragments were cloned from S. vinaceus genomic DNA into S. lividans, using the SLP1.2 vector. At least three different S. vinaceus BamHI fragments (1.9, 5.8, or 8.5 kilobases) confer viomycin resistance; only one PstI fragment (4.3 kilobases) was found. Recombinant plasmids were all able to produce lethal zygosis and to be transferred by conjugation within S. lividans. SCP2 was used to clone S. coelicolor A3(2) genes that "complemented" the auxotrophic mutation hisD3, argA1, or guaA1. Recombinant DNA technology can now be applied to economically and academically interesting problems unique to streptomycete molecular biology.

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