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Genetics. 1972 Mar;70(3):457-74.

Intergroup phylogenies in Drosophila as determined by comparisons of salivary banding patterns.


A salivary gland chromosome phylogeny is presented which summarizes the evolutionary relationships of twenty-two species belonging to the sub-genus Drosophila, and members of the twelve species groups: D. melanica, D. repleta, D. carbonaria, D. polychaeta, D. annulimana, D. robusta, D. carsoni, D. virilis, D. funebris and the "picture-wing," D. mimica and D. crassifemur groups (of Hawaii).-Photographic salivary chromosome maps were prepared for all twenty-two species studied. While the chromosomes of different species belonging to the same group can usually be homologized almost completely, so that construction of intragroup phylogenies is easy, chromosomes of members of different groups are so modified structurally that in most cases only short sections can be fully homologized, and these in only one or two chromosome elements.-Broadly homologous chromosome elements were compared for three species at a time, and on the basis of overlapping homologous sections, or overlapping inversions included within homologous sections, the trio of chromosomes, and the species to which they belonged can often be arranged in a two-step phylogenetic series. Detection of many such ordered trios permits construction of a single phylogenetic scheme encompassing all species.-D. nigromelanica, of the D. melanica group is found to be chromosomally intermediate between the rest of its group and the species belonging to other groups, suggesting that it is the most nearly ancestral member of its group. When trios of species including D. nigromelanica and members of two other species groups are compared, it is found that in twelve of fourteen such comparisons the chromosomes of D. nigromelanica are structurally intermediate between those of the members of the other two species groups, indicating the central position of D. nigromelanica in the phylogeny as a whole.-Available cytological evidence indicates that among the nine continental groups studied, it is the D. robusta group which is chromosomally closest to the Hawaiian "picture-wing" groups. Among the members of the Hawaiian groups it is D. primaeva and D. attigua which are found to be closest to the continental species. This finding tends to confirm the earlier conclusion of Carson and Stalker, based on different evidence, that the above two species were in an ancestral position in the Hawaiian phylogeny.-The relationship of the D. robusta and D. melanica groups demonstrated in this paper, the phylogenies within each of these two groups earlier worked out by Narayanan and by Stalker, and the present geographical distributions of the species within them, require that at least three Asiatic-New World migrations must have occurred during the evolution of the two groups.

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