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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec;76(12):6476-80.

Induction of glutamine synthetase in embryonic neural retina: localization in Müller fibers and dependence on cell interactions.


The cellular localization of glutamine synthetase [GSase; L-glutamate:ammonia ligase(ADP)-forming), EC] induced by cortisol in the neural retina of chicken embryos was investigated by immunostaining with GSase-specific antiserum and indirect immunofluorescence. In organ cultures of retina tissue, and in the retina in vivo, hormone-induced GSase was found to be confined only to the Müller fibers (retinoglia). Also, in mature chicken retina, which contains a very high level of GSase, the enzyme was detected solely in Müller fibers. In short-term monolayer cultures of dispersed embryonic retina cells, there was no GSase induction and no immunodetectable increase in enzyme level. However, when the dispersed cells were reaggregated and they restituted retinotypic cell associations, GSase could be induced and it was localized in Müller fibers. The results suggest that, in addition to the hormonal stimulus, contact-dependent interactions between Müller glia cells and retina neurons are involved in the mechanism of GSase induction in the retina.

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