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Cell Tissue Res. 1978 Jun 8;189(3):501-14.

Renal vascular anatomy of the toad (Bufo marinus).


The renal vasculature of the toad, Bufo marinus, was studied mainly by means of scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. All arterial branches terminated in a glomerulus. Each glomerulus was supplied by only one afferent arteriole. No shunts between afferent and efferent arterioles were observed. The glomerular channels appeared to be permanent capillaries. No evidence supporting the theory of freely shifting glomerular blood channels was found. Efferent arterioles radiated out towards the dorsal surface of the kidney where they connected with peritubular vessels. The renal portal veins produced an anastomosing plexus on the dorsal surface of the kidney, giving rise to the peritubular vessels. Peritubular vessels ran radially toward the ventral surface of the kidney, where they formed the roots of the renal veins. Attention is drawn to the possibility of hairpin countercurrent exchange between the capillary-like efferent arterioles and the peritubular vessels in the dorsal kidney.

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