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Biochemistry. 1985 Oct 8;24(21):5826-39.

Olefin oxygenation and N-dealkylation by dopamine beta-monooxygenase: catalysis and mechanism-based inhibition.


In an initial communication [May, S. W., Mueller, P. W., Padgette, S. R., Herman, H. H., & Phillips, R. S. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 110, 161-168], we reported that 1-phenyl-1-(aminomethyl)ethene hydrochloride (PAME) is an olefinic substrate for dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBM; EC which inactivates the enzyme in an apparent mechanism-based manner. The present study further characterizes this reaction. The inactivation reaction yields kinact = 0.23 min-1 at pH 5.0 and 37 degrees C and is strictly dependent on reductant (ascorbate) and oxygen. The DBM/PAME substrate reaction (apparent kcat = 14 s-1), shown to be stimulated by fumarate, gives the corresponding epoxide as product, identified by derivatization with 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine. However, the lack of DBM inhibition by alpha-methylstyrene oxide, and the observation of identical PAME/DBM inactivation rates in the absence and presence of preformed enzymatic PAME epoxide, indicates that free epoxide is not the inactivating species. A structure-activity study revealed that 4-hydroxylation of PAME (to give 4-HOPAME) increases both kinact (0.81 min-1) and apparent kcat (56 s-1) values, while 3-hydroxylation (to give 3-HOPAME) greatly diminishes inactivation activity while retaining substrate activity (apparent kcat = 47 s-1). 4-Hydroxy-alpha-methylstyrene was found to be a DBM inhibitor (kinact = 0.53 min-1) with weak substrate activity (apparent kcat = 0.71 s-1), while 3-hydroxy-alpha-methylstyrene and alpha-(cyanomethyl) styrene were found not to exhibit detectable DBM substrate activity and only weak inhibitory activity. 3-Phenylpropargylamine hydrochloride showed no detectable DBM substrate activity but rapidly inactivated the enzyme. A new substrate activity for DBM was discovered, N-dealkylation of N-phenylethylenediamine and N-methyl-N-phenylethylenediamine, and the lack of O-dealkylation activity with phenyl 2-aminoethyl ether and 4-hydroxyphenyl 2-aminoethyl ether indicates that DBM N-dealkylation proceeds via initial one-electron abstraction from the benzylic nitrogen heteroatom. With this new substrate and inhibitor reactivity information in hand, along with the other known substrate reactions, a DBM oxygenation mechanism analogous to that for cytochrome P-450 is proposed.

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