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Acta Orthop Scand. 1985 Oct;56(5):426-9.

Instability of knees with ligament lesions. Cadaver studies of the anterior cruciate ligament.


We studied the importance of the two parts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and the posterior medial capsule (PMC) to translatory and spontaneous axial rotatory instability in 15 osteoligamentous knee preparations. Instability was recorded continuously from zero to 90 degrees of flexion with application of a constant force to the tibia. Isolated cutting of the ACL caused a moderate anterior translatory movement, which increased if the MCL was also cut. Transection also of the PMC resulted in an even larger range of anterior translatory movement. Combined lesions to the MCL and the PMC and the posterolateral part of the ACL did not cause such instability provided the anteromedial part of the ACL was intact. Application of a valgus moment to specimens with injured ACL and medial structures induced a spontaneous anteromedial subluxation of the tibia in a semiflexed position. When flexion was increased to 70-80 degrees, a sudden reduction was observed.

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