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Status of Anopheles malaria vectors in Indonesia.


During eight years (1975-1984), approximately 46 species of Anopheles have so far been detected by entomological team of Directorate General Communicable Disease Control in Indonesia. Eighteen species of Anopheles have been confirmed as malaria vectors and seven species which consist of: An. sundaicus, An. subpictus An. aconitus, An. balabacensis, An. barbirostris, An. punctulatus and An. minimus have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors, during 1975-1984. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus are the main vectors in Java (reconfirmed 1979-1980-1982). An. sundaicus is predominantly exophilic and exophagic. It is mostly anthropophilic except in Central Java and Yogyakarta where the Human Blood Index (HBI) of An. sundaicus is too low (1.31%). Based on susceptibility tests done during period 1980 to 1983, no An. sundaicus resistance to DDT has been recorded in Java. An. aconitus is the main vector in island of Java. Although mostly exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic, in some places (Central Java) it may still be a dangerous vector. An. aconitus resistance to DDT have been recorded in Central Java, Yogyakarta and large part of East Java. Based on few tests done in Java, An. aconitus is still susceptible to dieldrin and organophosphates i.e. malathion and fenitrotion. Malaria vectors in Outer Islands (outside Java), are predominantly exophilic and exophagic and are still susceptible to DDT. There might be some complexes confronting malaria control programme, which could be An. aconitus, An. Sundaicus and An. balabacensis in Indonesia.

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