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J Clin Ultrasound. 1985 Mar-Apr;13(3):167-86.

Compilation of reported biological effects data and ultrasound exposure levels.


A compilation of reports of biological effects and related ultrasound exposure levels can be useful in the identification of trends in effects data that may be developing in the literature. The exposures in the experiments reviewed were at frequencies used in medicine. For short (10 minutes or less) continuous wave exposure, with the exception of behavioral effects where variable results have been observed, this tabulation did not identify any in vivo or in vitro effects at spatial peak, temporal average (SPTA) intensities less than 100 mW/cm2. However, a number of effects using pulsed sources with SPTA intensities under this level have been reported. There are several frequently recurring topics in recent reports which include developmental effects and microstructure changes at the cellular level. In addition to animal investigations, there are some limited human epidemiological studies reporting an association between medical ultrasound exposure in utero and developmental effects. Although sufficient research has not been completed to draw conclusions, the findings deserve further investigation. A systematic pattern of directed research on a large scale is not apparent. The available data consist of many scattered studies conducted by individual investigators and groups throughout the world.

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