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Cancer Treat Rev. 1985 Sep;12 Suppl A:43-9.

Results of NCI-sponsored phase I trials with carboplatin.


Carboplatin has been developed for clinical trials as a less nephrotoxic, less emetogenic analog of cisplatin. In preclinical tumor models it was less potent than the parent compound on a molar basis, but reduced toxicity allowed comparable antitumor doses to be given. In phase I studies its dose-limiting toxicities were reversible myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia. Leucopenia and anemia occurred to a lesser degree. Other reported toxicities included nausea, vomiting, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, ototoxicity, hypomagnesemia, and proteinuria. Nausea and vomiting occurred frequently, but was much less severe than that observed with cisplatin. The incidence of serum creatinine elevations was low. The increase was usually reversible and occurred only in association with administration of aminoglycosides, or abnormal pretreatment renal function. Recommended phase II doses by schedule are: bolus every 4 weeks, 400-500 mg/m2 (560 mg/m2 in children); 24 hour continuous infusion every 4 weeks, 320-400 mg/m2; weekly bolus for 4 consecutive weeks with 2 weeks rest, 100-125 mg/m2 (175 mg/m2 in children); bolus for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks, 77-95 mg/m2. Objective responses were observed during these phase I studies in adult patients (head and neck, breast, renal carcinomas) and children (osteosarcoma, brain stem lesions). In addition to phase II evaluations in all major tumor types, plans for phase III studies in selected tumors are underway.

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