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Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1985 Apr;1(1):117-29.

Cardiovascular disease in the equine neonate.


Cardiac disease in the equine neonate occurs infrequently. Murmurs are often heard in foals and are not considered significant unless they persist beyond 4 days of age. Congenital cardiac defects are the most common form of primary cardiac disease in the foal, with ventricular septal defects occurring most frequently. Other neonatal foal diseases such as ruptured bladders, white muscle disease, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and septicemia have secondary cardiac involvement.

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