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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986 Jul;92(1):105-13.

Results of operations for ventricular tachycardia in 105 patients.


Operations to treat ventricular tachycardia refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs were performed in 105 patients. Intraoperative epicardial activation sequence maps were completed in 83% and endocardial maps in 57%. Mapping could be used to guide 79% of operations. When no useful mapping data were obtained, patients had visually guided antiarrhythmic operations (17%) or conventional cardiac operations (4%). The most frequently performed antiarrhythmic procedures, alone or in combination, were endomyocardial resection (45%), cryothermal destruction (44%), and encircling procedures (20%). Operative mortality was 16%, including 6% from heart failure and 4% from ventricular tachycardia. Emergency operation (p = 0.002) and New York Heart Association heart failure class (p = 0.01) were independent preoperative risk factors for cardiac operative mortality in the 98 patients with coronary artery disease. At postoperative electrophysiologic study performed in 79 patients, ventricular tachycardia could not be induced in 75% of patients who had map-guided operations and 36% who had visually guided ones (p = 0.001). During follow-up of 23 +/- 21 months, results of postoperative electrophysiologic study predicted ventricular tachycardia recurrence. At 2 years the actuarial incidence of freedom from arrhythmia recurrence was 50% +/- 10% in patients with and 78% +/- 6% in patients without inducible ventricular tachycardia (p = 0.001); it was 71% +/- 5% in patients who had map-guided operations and 37% +/- 12% in patients who had visually guided ones (p = 0.004). Ventricular tachycardia recurrence was infrequent in survivors of map-guided operations; benefits of surgical treatment for ventricular tachycardia were limited by high operative mortality and frequent arrhythmia recurrence when no useful mapping data were obtained.

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