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J Hand Surg Am. 1986 May;11(3):388-96.

Treatment methods for extravasations of chemotherapeutic agents: a comparative study.


A rat model was used to compare early surgical intervention with injectable and topical antidotes with regard to their effectiveness in preventing cutaneous ulcers that were caused by intradermal injections of vesicant chemotherapeutic agents. The (animals) rats received bilateral flank injections of doxorubicin, vincristine, actinomycin D, mitomycin C, or carmustine (BCNU) in concentrations that were comparable to concentrations used for human patients; after the injections they underwent debridement at various intervals or received immediate applications of selected antidotes. Many "antidotes" which were frequently used, were not effective in limiting the size of the ulcer and in producing rapid healing of ulcers that were caused by experimental vesicant extravasations. Early surgical debridement was the most effective method of decreasing vesicant ulcer size and facilitating rapid ulcer healing of all the interventions tested.

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