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J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Aug;77(2):351-6.

Cigarette smoking, obesity, diuretic use, and coffee consumption as risk factors for renal cell carcinoma.


One hundred sixty incident cases of renal cell carcinoma under the age of 55 years and an equal number of age-(within 5 yr), race-, and sex-matched neighborhood controls were interviewed. Cigarette smoking was a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma in males [relative risk (RR) = 2.1, one-sided P = .02] but not in females (RR = 1.1, P = .50). Obesity was a significant risk factor in both males and females: The RR for a 4th quartile compared to a 1st quartile Quetelet's Index 10 years ago was 2.5 for males and 3.3 for females. Additional risk factors in females were diuretic use (RR = 4.5, P = .002) and daily coffee consumption (RR = 2.3, P = .06).

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