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J Biomech. 1988;21(1):45-54.

A least-squares algorithm for the equiform transformation from spatial marker co-ordinates.

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  • 1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.


The present paper describes an algorithm for estimating the translation vector and the rotation matrix of a moving body from noisy measurements on the spatial co-ordinates of at least three non-collinear markers. A sensitivity analysis of the estimated parameters and of the helical axis is presented in terms of characteristics of the marker distribution. The implementation of the proposed algorithm in a FORTRAN-subroutine is appended.

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