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Blood Cells. 1987;13(1-2):3-15.

The molecular biology of the colony-stimulating factors.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195.


Our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of the colony stimulating factors (CSF) and the regulation of their production has advanced rapidly with the application of recombinant DNA technology. This report reviews several aspects of the regulation of CSF production and the structural features relating to their function. The structural gene for hGM-CSF is present as a single copy, is 2.5 kilobase long region and is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. The genes for human multi-CSF and M-CSF are also on chromosome 5. The gene for hGM-CSF is organized into four exons. The intron-exon boundaries contain a single consensus splice donor and acceptor sequence. CSFs are elaborated by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and T lymphocytes in response to inflammatory mediators. Many of these same cell types respond to inflammatory stimuli with production of additional immune mediators such as IL-1, IL-2, or the interferons. Insights are now emerging into important structure--function relationships of the hematopoietic growth factors and molecular events in the regulation of CSF gene expression.

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