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Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988 Nov;65(11):893-904.

Vision anomalies and reading skill: a meta-analysis of the literature.

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  • 1School of Education, University of California, Berkeley.


We report a meta-analysis of studies of the relation of vision anomalies to reading skill. Meta-analysis is a quantitative technique for combining the results of multiple studies that reduces the subjectivity of literature reviews. The results of the analysis of 34 studies of vision anomalies and reading skill that met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis showed that hyperopia, exophoria at near, vertical phoria, anisometropia, and aniseikonia are associated with below average reading performance. Myopia and esophoria and esophoria at far are associated with average and above average reading performance. Reduced visual acuity, astigmatism, esophoria at near, fusional convergence and divergence, strabismus, nearpoint of convergence, and stereopsis were not found to be associated with reading performance.

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