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J Biol Chem. 1986 Aug 25;261(24):11173-9.

The interaction of nucleotides with pertussis toxin. Direct evidence for a nucleotide binding site on the toxin regulating the rate of ADP-ribosylation of Ni, the inhibitory regulatory component of adenylyl cyclase.


The interaction of nucleotides with pertussis toxin (PT), and their effects on the ability of the toxin to ADP-ribosylate pure Ni, were evaluated. [32P]ATP (10 nM) bound directly to dithiothreitol-activated PT. This binding was competitively inhibited by nucleotides and anions with the following IC50 concentrations in order of decreasing potency: ATP = ATP gamma S (adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) = 0.2-0.3 microM, GDP beta S (guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)) = 2-3 microM, GTP gamma S (guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) = 10-15 microM, ADP = 20-25 microM, GTP = 30-40 microM, GMP-P(NH)P (guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) = 100-150 microM, GDP = 150-200 microM, Pi = SO4(2-) = 20 mM and Cl- = acetate = 30-35 mM. Treatment of PT with ATP, AMP-P(NH)P, GTP, GDP, or GDP beta S, resulted in a stimulated state of NAD+-Ni ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Addition of ATP, AMP-P(NH)P (adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate), GTP, GDP, and GDP beta S to the ADP-ribosylation reactions resulted in increased rates of ADP-ribosyl-Ni formation. It is concluded that these effects on the nucleotides are due to their action to stimulate the activity of PT. At concentrations of PT between 0.04 and 0.4 microgram/ml, the stimulation of ADP-ribosylation of Ni effected by nucleotides was hysteretic in nature, exhibiting an approximately 25-min long lag when GDP was used as the activating nucleotide. These lags decreased with increasing concentrations of PT, and were abolished by pretreatment of the toxin with GDP or ATP. Preliminary incubation of Ni with GDP had no effect on the lag in its ADP-ribosylation by non-nucleotide treated PT. Addition of divalent cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+) inhibited formation of ADP-ribosyl-Ni, possibly by causing aggregation and denaturation of Ni. This is the first demonstration that both adenine and guanine nucleotides interact directly with PT and act to stimulate its activity to ADP-ribosylate Ni, and that guanine nucleotides do so regardless of whether they are nucleoside di- or triphosphates.

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