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J Biol Chem. 1987 Jul 5;262(19):9316-23.

The GTP-binding protein of rod outer segments. I. Role of each subunit in the GTP hydrolytic cycle.


The GTP-binding protein of Bufo marinus rod outer segments (ROS) is composed of 3 subunits: G alpha, 39,000; G beta, 36,000; and G gamma, approximately 6,500. A stepwise analysis of the GTP hydrolytic cycle (GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis, and GDP release) was facilitated by using purified subunits of the GTP-binding protein. When G alpha and G beta, gamma concentrations were held constant, the initial rate of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma-s) binding to G alpha was dependent upon the amount of bleached rhodopsin present (as illuminated, urea-washed ROS disc membranes). When G alpha and the quantity of these membranes was held constant, the initial rate of GTP gamma-s binding to G alpha was markedly enhanced by increasing the amount of G beta, gamma. G beta preparations (free of G gamma) also stimulated the binding of GTP gamma-s to G alpha to the same extent as G beta, gamma preparations, suggesting that G gamma is not an essential component of the G beta, gamma-dependent stimulation of the rate of GTP gamma-s binding to G alpha. Nonlinear regression analysis revealed a single class of binding sites with an apparent stoichiometry of 1 mol of site/mol of G alpha under optimal binding conditions. Following GTP binding to G alpha, the GTP X G alpha complex dissociates from G beta, gamma which remains primarily bound to the ROS disc membranes. Moreover, while GTP remains in excess, the rates of GTP hydrolysis exhibited saturation in the presence of increasing amounts of G beta, gamma. Nonlinear regression analysis of these data argues against a direct role for G beta, gamma in the hydrolysis of GTP. Thus, both topologic and kinetic data support the concept that GTP hydrolysis is carried out by G alpha alone. After hydrolysis of GTP, the GDP X G alpha complex returned to the ROS disc membrane when G beta, gamma was present on the membrane surface, in the presence and absence of light. Without guanine nucleotides GDP release occurred in the presence of illuminated ROS disc membranes and G beta, gamma. Guanine nucleotides (GTP gamma-s approximately equal to GTP approximately equal to guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate greater than GDP) could effectively displace GDP from G alpha under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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