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Ann Intern Med. 1985 Nov;103(5):734-7.

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in infants and children.


The classification of the pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is based on epidemiologic, immunologic, and virologic data. Persons at risk include mothers who use intravenous drugs, infants who have received blood transfusions from subjects with risk factors, patients receiving factor VIII therapy, and infants born to heterosexual mothers with bisexual husbands. A distinct immunologic phenotype, rarely seen in other immunodeficiency disorders, is associated with pediatric AIDS consisting of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and T-cell immunodeficiency. Detection of antibody to the AIDS retrovirus or isolation of virus are essential in establishing a diagnosis. During early infancy, viral isolation is essential as passive transfer of material IgG may occur. Primary immunodeficiency diseases, in particular adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, should be excluded. A diagnosis of pediatric AIDS may be established in a patient who has a risk factor associated with AIDS, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, T-cell immunodeficiency, and antibody to the AIDS retrovirus or isolation of virus.

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