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Vet Hum Toxicol. 1989 Apr;31(2):143-8.

Pregnancy outcome following first trimester exposure to cocaine in social users in Toronto, Canada.

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  • 1Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Studies of drug-dependent women reveal high rates of adverse fetal effects of cocaine. However, no data are available on the effect of the chemical in social users who discontinue cocaine upon realizing they are pregnant. We report the results of the first phase of a prospective study examining the outcome of pregnancy in women seeking counseling from the Motherisk Program in Toronto. Of 25 women seen in our clinic for 1st trimester cocaine exposure, 92% reported use of less than 10 g of cocaine and 36% reported marijuana use. Other illicit drug use was rare; cigarette and alcohol use was common. The study group did not experience adverse pregnancy outcome above the rate expected in the general population. There were 23 single births 1 pair of twins, and 1 spontaneous abortion. Birth weight and gestation were within normal limits. Only 1 child had a major malformation, syndactyly. Infant development was within normal limits, as measured by developmental milestones. All children are scheduled for assessment using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The results of the BSID will be compared to results from a cannabis-exposed control group and a no-drug control group.

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