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Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Sep;144(9):1148-53.

Clinical nonrecognition of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders: a cautionary study.


Extrapyramidal side effects are a major limitation in the use of neuroleptics, and tardive dyskinesia is a special public health problem. Accurate clinical diagnosis of extrapyramidal syndromes is necessary for effective management. The authors compared clinicians' recognition of the major extrapyramidal syndromes in 48 psychotic inpatients with independent blind diagnoses by clinical researchers using standardized ratings. The major finding was a high rate of clinical underrecognition of all major extrapyramidal syndromes, especially tardive dyskinesia. The authors discuss the clinical predictors of nonrecognition of extrapyramidal side effects and recommend improved training in their detection.

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