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J Biol Chem. 1985 Dec 15;260(29):16012-20.

Catalytic properties of a calmodulin-regulated transglutaminase from human platelet and chicken gizzard.


The kinetic parameters and some enzymatic characteristics of human platelet and chicken gizzard transglutaminases were determined. Activity of the transglutaminases was regulated by calmodulin. These enzymes co-isolated with alpha-actinin and were dissociated from alpha-actinin by gel filtration and absorption onto a calmodulin affinity column. Silver-stained polyacrylamide gels showed that the protein peak eluted by EGTA from this column contained polypeptides of Mr approximately 58,000 and 63,000. The transglutaminases required Ca2+ for incorporation of monodansylcadaverine into casein and actin substrates. Activity was enhanced 3-fold by calmodulin with a biphasic effect, showing stimulation at 10-200 nM and inhibition at concentrations higher than 300 nM. In the presence of 200 nM calmodulin, half-maximal transglutaminase stimulation was obtained with 2.5 microM free [Ca2+]. Chlorpromazine inhibited calmodulin enhancement of the transglutaminases. Activity of the transglutaminases was independent of proteolytic activation, since inhibitors for Ca2+-dependent proteases failed to inhibit filamin cross-linking. For comparison, factor XIIa, a plasma and platelet transglutaminase, required both Ca2+ and thrombin for activation and was insensitive to calmodulin. The cross-linking pattern of fibrin, fibrin monomers, and fibrinogen by the calmodulin-regulated transglutaminases showed, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, disappearance of fibrinogen alpha-chains with no decrease of beta- and gamma-chains or formation of gamma-gamma dimers. By autoradiography, cross-linked products of 125I-fibrinogen revealed heavily labeled high molecular weight polymers and polypeptides of Mr 98,000, 116,000, and 148,000; the latter appeared to be a transient species. However, when fibrin, fibrin monomers, and fibrinogen were used as factor XIIIa substrates, gamma-gamma dimers and alpha-polymers were formed. Formation of gamma-gamma dimers was slower with fibrinogen than with fibrin. Iodoacetamide blocked activity of factor XIIIa but not of the calmodulin-regulated transglutaminases.

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