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Surgery. 1989 Oct;106(4):740-8; discussion 748-9.

Primary hepatic malignancy: surgical management and determinants of survival.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minn 55905.


To further define the clinicopathologic features and determinants of survival, we reviewed the cases of 110 patients with primary hepatic malignancy managed surgically between 1975 and 1986. Presenting signs of symptoms were pain (57%), fatigue (48%), abdominal mass (40%), and weight loss (33%). Twenty-six percent of patients had a history of hepatitis or cirrhosis. Histopathologically, tumors were hepatocarcinoma (72%), fibrolamellar variant (7%), cholangiocarcinoma (9%), mixed (7%), and other (5%). Resectability rate with curative intention was 67%. Exploration and biopsy alone was performed in 27% and palliative resection in 6%. Hospital mortality was 9%, and serious morbidity was 22%. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were significantly associated with operative blood loss. Median survival was 12.6 months, with a 5-year survival of 18%. Median survival after curative resection was 22.8 months, and 5-year survival was 27%. Univariate analysis showed that female sex, normal performance status, well-differentiated tumor, and curative resection were associated with increased survival; cholangiocarcinoma, nodal metastases, cirrhosis, hypocalcemia, prolonged prothrombin time, and increased serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were associated with decreased survival. Cox multivariate analysis showed that curative resection, normal performance status, and well-differentiated tumors were associated with increased survival, and prolonged prothrombin time and hypocalcemia were associated with decreased survival.

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